Identity: Do we choose it or does it choose us?

Soon, the first African American president will be sworn into office. Let’s leave aside the historical nature of this event and analyze what makes Barack Obama “African American.” Clearly, he has African roots; his father was Kenyan. But his mother was a white woman from Kansas and one of her parents claimed to have some Native American ancestry. And his stepfather, the man who helped shape his personal moral and ethical sense of the world, was Indonesian. But while he hardly knew his African father, having spent only a couple of weeks in his presence as a young boy, he was well acquainted with his stepfather. And while his mother is the person about whom he says “the best parts of me are because of her,” he also spent considerable time with his white grandparents. So how is it that any of us would think to simply call this man “African American”?

It is possible to imagine how these relationships could develop in Barack Obama a global, multi-ethnic identity. But they do not. For in spite of the fact that he is the quintessential “multicultural, multiracial human being,” at some point in his post teen years he chose to identify himself as African American.

But did he really choose?

Consider this: If identity grows out of culture (the people and environment in which we grow up as opposed to the blood that flows through our veins), one would think that Obama might consider himself white—or maybe even Indonesian. In fact, technically he has as much claim to being a “white American” as to being a “black” or an “African American,” and clearly he is more personally connected to white culture than he is to black or African culture. But he nonetheless refers to himself as “black” and “African American.”

We know that he was seen by others as “black,” and those of us who have up close and personal experience with multiracial people know that they are generally labeled by their dominant features. But people who are multiracial do not have to accept those labels…right? So could Obama have chosen to identify himself as white? What about refusing to choose one or the other and instead claim his biracial status? Was this possible?

Here’s the question for the moment: What is it that makes Obama feel most connected to (i.e., identified with) black people? And what is it that allows most of us to accept this identification with little dissonance?

And what about the identities of each one of us? Why do we select the racial, ethnic, and ancestry labels that are applied to us? Think about it: Why do we respond in the way that we do when someone asks us, “What are you?” What aspects of our culture/biological ancestry/physical appearance are we including and excluding in our identifications? Are we merely mimicking our parents and grandparents?

Check out this map of the “Obama extended family” from the New York Times.


  • Anonymous says:

    People identify themselves racially for many different reasons. In Barack Obama’s case, although I have no way of knowing exactly why he chooses to characterize himself as black, I would guess that it is because his skin is dark and most resembles that of a black man. Whichever ethnic group Barack spent the majority of his life with does not necessarily define his racial identity, even though it has cultured him as a human being. It does not decide his racial identity because a person chooses what ethnic group he or she wants to identify with, for whatever reason drives them. There are unlimited reasons because every person is driven by different motives. I know of a girl who although is a white girl, plain and simple. She has grown up with her white family in a white neighborhood, at a mostly white high school. Apparently, this white girl had one black ancestor in her family gene pool at one time. This one black ancestor gave her the right to identify herself as African-American when applying to colleges. What were her motives for defining herself as black? They had to be very different then Barack Obama’s, because she certainly doesn’t look black. That girl was accepted into the University North Carolina at Chapel Hill and received an eight thousand dollar a year scholarship. Now this might not have been solely because she told them she was a black girl, but this girl got into a great school and they gave her money to attend it. This rich white girl scummed her way into a scholarship and took that money from a kid who probably needed it more than she did. Now although her motives were crafty, deceitful, and grotesque, the point of this story was to enlighten you upon the many different reasons why a person will identify there self as a particular race.
    This girls motive was financially driven, which is probably far different than Barack Obama’s, and mine for that matter. I identify myself as a white man. If someone were to ask me what my background is, I would say that I’m Irish. I am not fully one hundred percent Irish, my understanding is that I am half Irish (my mom is one hundred percent), and my dad is a mix between Russian, Polish, and maybe a few other things. I call myself Irish because my mom has gotten me in touch with my Irish heritage. I have been to Ireland, met my aunts, uncles, and cousins who live there. So this is why I declare myself as a white Irishman, my reasons for doing so are far less extravagant than this girl’s were. Although we do not pick our backgrounds, we do pick (for whatever reasons suit us individually) which part of our background to identify as.

  • Anonymous says:

    My entire life I identified myself as American, even though I had never lived on American soil. I grew up in Australia until I was nine years old; but I felt that I was an American. My only ties to America were that my parents were American and my entire family lived in the United States. Even though half my life I lived in another country, I never once identified myself as Australian. It wasn’t that I didn’t like Australia; I just identified myself more with American culture due to the influence my family had on me. My entire life it was just drilled into me that I was American. However, when I moved to the United States, I was labeled as Australian because I had an accent. It was a weird situation having the identity I had for myself be completely different than the identity my classmates had for me.
    I believe Barack Obama dealt with a similar situation when he was younger. Although he never really knew his African father, he still had ties to the African culture that he hadn’t even experienced. Even though he was around white people most of the time, he still felt stronger ties to his African American side. This is why he refers to himself as African American. Just like I had never experienced American culture that much, I still considered myself American. I don’t believe it’s necessary to be close to a culture in order to identify with it. If someone were to ask me my ethnicity, I’d call myself Italian and Irish. However, I’ve never been to either of those countries. Yet I still define myself as being from those countries, due to my heritage.
    There are facial features and skin colors that inadvertently put people into separate categories. It’s undeniable that Barack Obama has darker skin. Thus he’d be more inclined to call himself African American because of his skin. Part Asian people are seen as Asian because of their different looking eye shape. Society itself has turned these features into ways of labeling people. People are generally influenced by the norms of society. This leads to people defining themselves as how society sees them. If a person knew nothing about Barack Obama but just saw him on TV, they’d consider him a black man just based on the color of his skin. I think in a way sometimes people define themselves as how others see them.
    I believe many factors shaped Barack Obama’s racial identity. I believe society’s portrayal of him as a black man played a large part. Because it doesn’t matter how you define yourself if everyone else sees you in a different way. I also believe his father’s Kenyan background gave him strong ties to his African side, such as my parents did for me. Ultimately, I believe Barack associated himself with the label he felt most comfortable with.

  • Ebonie says says:

    As history has shown its what you look like that gets you ahead in life. When slavery was around if you were “black” you were a slave. Yes, there were people who were shades darker then others, blue black we call them, but there were people who were so light that they were able to pass as “white”. These children were most likely the children from slave who were fathered by slave masters. They looked white so they passed as it. They were capable of getting away with being another race because they looked like another race. Back in the day being white was the only right race to be. You could have your pride and cherished your dark skin but the facts remain that you were treated lesser then an animal, which I would think were better off then us, black people.

    I myself am one of the lighter skinned “black” people. As I see it I am Black. I look it and so I am it. I don’t have a huge nose but its not pointy straight and slender as the Europeans would want it to be. My hair is defiantly not straight and silky, its tight and crinkly, while the color is different from a usual dark brown it is still not a European texture. True some of my features describe that I may not be alone in my heritage but they are just that, some features. My father is what you say is an African America, or a “Black” person. My mother a mixed race, from her father black, white and Spanish and her mother an African American. So she is defiantly not your typical looking “black” person. Her hair is silky, smooth and full of curls. She skin is one while you suspect her to be a mixed race it would not occur that it was black. Yet when she is asked, either in person or on a slip to identify herself she checks without hesitation African American.

    Yes Obama has some mixture in him but that facts remain they aren’t prominent at all. If you were to see him on the street you would register in your head that he is Black and nothing else. If this was back a few hundred years the fact that he was half white wouldn’t matter at all. He’d still be in the fields or in the kitchen serving the “white” people like the rest of the black people. He’d be a slave. That fact that he was half white might even be hazardous to him.

    Our ancestors should determine who we are, but in this world until we can see passed color, which we will never be able to do, we will be categorized by the way we look. So while I do have some mixed blood in me I will still be categorized as a black person. An Obama looks and is black, he has some mixed blood in him but he looks…Black! If it looks like a black man, and comes from a black man, it’s a black man.

  • Gina D says:

    I feel that Barack Obama should not only consider himself African American. I am just so tired of hearing everyone calling him a legend because he is the first African American president. Yes, he is the first president whose features are dominantly black, but he is multiracial; he is also half white from his mother’s side. I think a lot of people tend to forget that he is not 100% black and that they only want to think he’s all black because it is what’s most appealing to the public. We’re so used to having Presidents with the same skin color, and once Obama comes around, we only want to stress that he’s African American.
    I don’t think Obama chose to only consider himself African American to the public. I feel that his identity grew out of culture because it is the people around him and the environment that he grew up in that chose how he should identify himself. One of Sam Richards’ comments in this specific blog is that Obama’s best parts come from his mother’s side, so why would he not want to identify himself as multicultural? My personal opinion is that if I were Obama, I would identify myself as “multicultural” instead of just simply African American.
    Though mainly people identify Obama as African American because of his dominant features, I don’t feel that Obama should have to accept the labels that are given to him. Obama has the right to choose how he should be identified and what he thinks is right because he is his own person and nobody besides himself should tell him how he should be identified to the public. You might ask the question if Obama only identified himself as white, would there be more controversy with how he wants to identify himself? Would African Americans be offended that he is neglecting his African American roots? Yes, there might be more confusion because Obama doesn’t look white at all, but you should be true to yourself and say what you feel is right. If Obama wants to change his identification from African American to multicultural, then he should go for it.
    When it comes to my identity, the reason why I select the ethnic label that is applied to me is because I do mimick my parents. All my life, I have mostly been identified as only a white American even though I also have an Italian and Irish heritage. Although I am technically multicultural, I never really thought about that growing up. I don’t think me or anyone else should be embarrassed of their heritage; we should be proud of our cultural background and not be afraid to show it.

  • Anonymous says:

    I think that identity may be personal. It is what you think or know you really are. However, when it comes to race, then most people say they are the race they have the most of in them. So Obama may technically have more African in him than white because his mother may have had a little Native American mixed in her. This makes her a mix herself and not just one single race. His father, however, is from Kenya so I doubt there is much mix in him. He is totally Kenyan, which would make him African. Obama may indeed have more African in him than white so I think it would be okay for Obama to identify as African American because his father is African and his mother is white. The same would be true for an Asian American. If an Asian man came to America and had a child with a white woman then that child would be considered Asian American. I do no think that a person has to live like the stereotype of their race in order to consider themselves a part of that race. For example, even though Obama was not exposed to a lot of “African-American” culture that does not mean he cannot call himself an African-American. Many African-Americans are mixed with white and plenty of other races and they are considered African-American so why can’t Obama consider himself African-American? Is it because he did not have the stereotypical lifestyle of an “African-American?” There is no one culture for them because everyone is mixed in so many different ways. I do not think that Obama should deprived from calling himself a race that he definitely would be considered by most people just because his mother was white and had different traditions.
    Another example is the Asian American I mentioned earlier. If an Asian man came to America and had a baby with a white woman then that baby would be considered Asian American. I do not think it matters whether the child grows up in what is considered an “Asian American” household because that is just playing into stereotypes too much. Just because that child grows p with a white mom and follows her traditions does not change it’s heritage. The child still has as much Asian in them as any other Asian American who may grow up in a household that follows more Asian or Asian American traditions.
    I do not believe people have to act a certain way or do certain things to be considered part of a race. People should not rely on stereotypes and do what they think they are supposed to do just because of the color of their skin. If an African American man is raised by a white mom then he is still African American.

  • Monique says:

    I think our identity is chosen for us depending on environment, our parents and our friends. I had a friend in high school that was black and white but all her friends were black, she grew up in a predominantly black neighborhood, and when people referred to her a lot of the time she was a black girl. She was often called fake or that she “wanted to be white” when she mentioned that she was also half white because she looked black on the outside. Does looking like a certain race mean you have to identify with them or not identify? Just because you are born looking a certain way does not mean you have to identify with that race but it may make life a lot easier. What the world sees you as has a lot to do with how you identify yourself. If you were 75 percent black but looked white would it be easier to identify as white or black? Most likely as white because this is what everyone sees you as. Eventually people get tired of explaining what their heritage is and why they look the way they do so it is just easier to go with what everyone says you are or what you look like.
    Most times race is the first thing we notice about a person. Even when describing someone to someone else race is usually involved. I think that Barack Obama has chosen to identify himself as African American because most likely growing up this is what most people saw him as. If you are biracial and throughout your life most people put you in one group rather than the other eventually it becomes easier to identify with that race or group of people. Obama grew up in a time where America was segregated so even being a 50 percent black or even looking black made you the outcast. Quoting a girl in class (I do not know her name), “back in the day white people only saw him as black so why now when it comes to some form of power would he consider himself white.” If Barack Obama considered himself just white what do you think people would say? He would be accused of denying his heritage, wanting to be white or just “white-washed.” Even though he grew up in a white household raised by his white mother and grandmother his appearance matters much more than who raised him.
    The media also has a lot to do with race being such a big issue. On every newspaper and magazine the headlines were, “The First African- American President Elect.” The media focused so much attention on his race and not the politics that it became all about race. I have heard many times that if a white person did not vote for him they were racist and if a black did vote for him they were voting for him because he was black. But if a black person did not voting for Barack Obama they were denying their heritage and/or “not being black.” Although race may have been an issue with this election anyway, the media made it such a big concern that it became all about race and no longer about actual politics.

  • Anonymous says:

    I don’t think that one is able to choose his identity based on which racial or ethnic backgrounds he likes best. Actually, to say that one is capable of such a choice sounds quite absurd to me. Others identify one according to the color of his skin, the shape of his nose, and the shape of his eyes. Whether a person likes it or not, to the surrounding world he or she is recognized and categorized by the physical features that he or she possesses. To the eyes of the nation, Barack Obama is a black man. If he were to go around claiming he was a white man, people would think he was crazy. Similarly, if I, a 19-year-old white German Irish kid, identified myself as black because I found out that I somehow have African in my blood from generations ago, no one would take me seriously. I would still be viewed to the rest of the world as a white man.
    I realize that Obama is a mixture of many different races, yet the world views him as the race that corresponds to the one he identifies with, which makes sense. I’m sure he does not deny any of his heritage or ancestry, and yet he must identify himself as something, and thus, he is black.
    In high school, which is in a very rural that contains little diversity; there was a girl in my class who, similarly to the president, had a black father and a white mother. She looked, however, almost completely white. To everyone else she was, in fact, white. I actually didn’t know she was half-black half-white until after many years of schooling with her. Even if she wanted to identity herself as black, I think everyone else would’ve still considered her as white. Her identity was defined by her physical features, not her ancestral timeline.
    Everyone of course has an ancestry, and most likely that ancestry is mixed between various technical races, and yet most people do not classify themselves as every mixture of race that is in their heritage. I am a white Christian male. Yes, I am also Irish, German, Polish, Ukrainian, and who knows what else, but ultimately I am identified as simply a white man. I don’t think that Obama is playing his black side to his advantage, it’s just who he is. I definitely think, however, that his black ancestry worked as an advantage for him and his campaign for change, but his ancestry is not his fault.
    I saw videos on the Internet of people interviewing members in a black community and asking them what they thought about Obama. They all seemed to be diehard supporters. Yet, when asked specifics about his campaign, they had no clue what was going on, and it became clear that they were voting for him because he was black. And although this may be true for numerous cases, one cannot blame Obama for the color of his skin.

  • Anonymous says:

    What is it that makes Obama feel most connected to black people? And what is it that allows most of us to accept this identification with little dissonance? Although people can pass judgements and make hypotheses about why Obama labels himself as African American, it really should not bother others why he chooses to refer to himself as African American. I understand the fact that Obama’s father was from Kenyan, which makes him African American, and his mother was from Kansas, making him White American. Since Obama’s father was absent for most of his life, you would think he would want to associate himself with his White American ancestory from his mother, whose parents have Native American ancestory. What seems to grasp the ropes in Obama’s ethnic background would probably quite simply be his appearance.

    Obama’s dominant features, which make him appear as purely an African American, are the likely cause of people labeling him as African American. Personally, when I first saw Obama years ago, I acknowledged him as an African American; then after I found more information out about him, I saw him as the multiracial, multicultural man he is.

    When the question comes to mind whether identity is established from culture, meaning the people in your life and your surroundings, or from your biological background, I seem to think it’s your culture that makes you who you are. For example, your personality defines you as a person moreso than the color of your eyes or your height. Just as it’s said about how a boy who grows up with only sisters is more of a gentleman, a person who grows up in a religious community is more likey to stay religous throughout life, just to name a couple examples of how your surroundings have an effect on you. However, I think the conclusion of identity being craved out of your culture can really only be related to topics such as hobbies, likes, dislikes, beliefs, disbeliefs, etc, simply because ancestory is something you cannot change.

    I don’t disagree with the idea that Obama says that he is African American. If I came from his background, I would probably call myself African American also because of my appearance. There is no agruement that Obama does not look predominantly African American and that would be my agruement for referring to myself as African American if I were in his shoes.

    When people ask me “what I am”, I include all of my ancestory- German, Irish, Italian, and Scotish. I do this because I know that when people look at me, they obviously see me as a White American, which I am, but they are probably looking for more than just that.

  • katherine a. says:

    First off I feel that it would be easiest if I just state that I am Hispanic right off the bat. In Sociology 119 I have been challenged to ask myself why is it that I relate my identity as Hispanic is. I never really thought about it before now because I know that I am Hispanic. It has always been such a big part of me since my mother is Honduran and my father is El Salvadorian. I don’t think I am mimicking my parents or grandparents because I feel that I view my culture differently than them. I know I am American as well where as I feel that my parents and grandparents still strongly hold on to their cultures from back home. Although I practice a lot of the cultures of my ancestors I still relate very much to the American culture because I was born here and I am very much comfortable as being a Hispanic-American. In all honesty if someone asked me what my race was I would say Hispanic; not Hispanic-American. I cannot say for sure why this is, but I believe I’m just used to introducing myself as such. I cannot lie and say that other people’s opinion of my race does not matter because I do care. I care in the sense that I feel that when someone sees me they see Hispanic because I have obvious facial features that easily give away that I am Hispanic. I feel that this is why Obama identifies himself as African-American. When someone sees Obama for the first time they do not see his white half; they see his black half. Unfortunately, people who are multi-cultured feel that they have to pick and choose which culture they are going to relate to. I personally feel that if someone is multi-cultured they should identify themselves as such. It is easy for us to see someone and base our assumptions off of what that person looks like, but it’s not always accurate. I feel that Obama can relate to African Americans because he probably gets a lot of the same connotations placed on him that they do as well. A person’s looks play a big part in a first impression; when you first see Obama you first think “Oh. He’s black”. Someone identifying a person as black based off their appearance in my opinion is not bad. I just feel that people should place less emphasis on a person’s identity based on their ethnicity or race. Although I sometimes fall victim to making assumptions about people I know that I should not and it’s something I have to work on. As a last note I would like to state an observation I have made. I have been part of a few discussions about Obama’s race and it seems that many of the black people I speak to get very upset when I call Obama multi-racial. WHY??!!! I mean…he is right? So why get upset? If I was multi-racial I would not want any part of my racial identity to be discarded on the chance that I don’t have certain facial features or characteristics of that certain race. It just upsets me that some people feel that by me calling him half white and half black that I am saying he is any less black. That’s not what I’m saying at all.

  • Anonymous says:

    Do we choose identity or does it choose us. For one to answer this question they must first ask themselves, what do i think of me? Then we must stare at ourselves in the mirror and ask, what would a complete stranger think of me? It is that simple.

    To answer the first question you look at yourself and do not judge by the color of your skin or the cloths you are wearing. You are judging yourself by what you feel and the actions you make. So do we choose our identity? In this case I believe that yes we do. In answering the second question of what others would think by looking at us you are essentially asking does our identity choose us. I believe this to also be true that yes our identity does choose us. Now answering yes to both questions may be misleading, but I will explain how it answers the ultimate question of do we choose identity or does it choose us.

    When saying yes I choose my own identity I am saying yes because I believe identity is who we are and what we do in this world. If you ask me what my identity is the I am going to answer, I am a loyal hardworking person who likes to have a good time and would do anything for the people I care about. That is identity to me, not what color is my skin or where do my ancestors hail from. In the sense of it choosing us I feel as though that is true as well, but true in the sense of how strangers are going to see us. To someone who does not know you they are going to identify you by what your skin color is and what you are wearing and how all the people you are associating yourself with look. Physically I would be considered a white person, but I have a cousin with a white mother and a black father. Most people would refer to him as black where as I refer to him as my cousin and my friend not a black kid from a city who skin is a different color and who dresses different then me so he must not like anything I like. I was brought up not to see the color of a persons skin only who they were as a person. The way a person dresses or the people they hang out with or even the color of their skin does not tell you that person’s true identity. It is merely an identity that we as strangers have given them.

    So from what I have said, the answer to do we choose identity or does it choose us, is both. Our identity is chosen for us until we decide to approach someone and let them know who we really are. By doing that you are able to choose your identity because it takes away whatever misconceptions anyone had of you. All of us should take action and choose our own identity.

  • Larissa says:

    Identity it’s what you consider yourself, what people wants to see you as a person. Barack Obama as we know is half white and half black like the article said he grew up in a white family and with an Indonesian stepfather. I think that he doesn’t really have to identify himself as anything but to say where he comes from and what his parents are from. Even though he grew up in a white family, others are not going to see him as a white person, because the description of a white person its light skin completion, blue eyes or green etc. Obama can just say I’m a white man, because he it’s the opposite of a white man even though he is half white. Obama probably feels more comfortable by saying that he is African American because that’s what everybody considers him. Now that he is our president, most of the people didn’t even know he was half white, because his skin completion it’s dark so everybody just assumes that he is just African American. Every person identifies themselves as something, no matter if it’s what sex or what race, for example myself, I identify myself as Hispanic, but everybody just assumes am Asian and half something else, so sometimes we don’t even half control of our own identity. Identity as about who you are, but if Barack Obama its half and half he should be able to say that say half and half, or choose which one he feels comfortable with, but why can he say he is white? Is it because just his skin completion or something else? But all I know is that identity it’s not only about who you came from and who you are it’s also about what other people think you should identify yourself as, because why can white people say they are from Spain, they all light skin. We all say from what country we are from and that should identify what we are, but they are babies that are adopted from the other part of the world and they come to the United States and they grow on a white family, so they don’t know about the culture but just the American culture so that means they are American or where they from? What is Identity about, is it about what people assume that we are or is it what we say we are? Me myself when I see our president I just say he is black because that’s what I see, but I don’t know if he thinks the same. If you ask white people what is Obama’s identity, the majority are going to say he is black. That’s what we see.

  • tamara says:

    Identity has many different meanings such as beautiful. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. What I may think is beautiful, someone else may think is ugly. Identity, in the social world, depends on race. As many people may say that race is not a factor and some people say they do not see color, they are lying. I define myself as African American because my family decedents are from Africa. Obama identifies himself as African American although he is multiracial.
    Race or identities may also depend on where you live or was raised. Since Obama didn’t really identify himself until his early teams, we don’t really know where it came from. It could have been where he lived at that time or who his friends were. He knew his mother was white and his father was African but he just accepted the one side of his culture. The world looks at color so differently but also the same in many ways. If we see someone on the street with a brown color skin and brown eyes and rough hair we automatically assume they are black or are mixed with black. Obama was a little hard to find out because he could have been a different race with the texture of his hair and the color of his skin.
    I have very dark skin and rough hair so without a doubt I knew that I was black or African American. Since my father was in the army we had to move a lot and to many different places. Many of the times it was in a suburban place. I grew up talking “white” or proper because of the schools that I went to. When I moved to Philadelphia, many of the students tried to make fun of me because I talked white but I never new that I talked white until I moved to Philly. As I noticed the way the people were talking I felt that I had to talk like them to fit in and be considered “black”. Little did I know that I was already considered black because of my skin color. Obama might have went through the same thing. To be considered black he might have had to act a certain way or maybe he always had people telling him he was black because of who his father was.
    Identity is a funny thing. Just as we are taught to eat with a fork instead of our hands or to brush out teeth or to even wake in the morning and sleep at night, we are taught who is what and how we identify them. We do not choose who we are, it is chosen for us. I may choose to be white or asian but I will never be treated as that because of the beginning of the world and the color of my skin being identified as black.

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